Definition: Estimated percentage of women with a live birth who before age 14 experienced childhood hardships, by family income level (e.g., among California women with a live birth in 2013-2014 and living in families with incomes below their federal poverty guideline, an estimated 9.7% experienced four or more childhood hardships).
Data Source: California Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health (MCAH) Program, & University of California, San Francisco, Center on Social Disparities in Health, Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) Survey (Mar. 2018).
Footnote: This indicator reports the prevalence of seven childhood hardships: (1) basic needs not met, (2) parental drinking or drug problem, (3) parental legal trouble or incarceration, (4) parental divorce or separation, (5) family hunger, (6) relocation due to problems paying rent or mortgage, (7) foster care placement. Family income is based on monthly pre-tax income from work, welfare, disability, unemployment, child support, interest, dividends, and support from family members. The federal poverty guideline was $23,850 for a California family of four in 2014. MIHA is an annual population-based survey of California resident women with a live birth in the calendar year. Percentages are weighted to represent all women with a live birth in California and counties during the time period. Refer to the MIHA technical notes for information on weighting methods.